Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. Farming News .




FARM NEWS
Common crop pesticides kill honeybee larvae in the hive
by Staff Writers
Philadelphia PA(SPX) Jan 30, 2014


A bee feeds larvae. Image courtesy Maryann Frazier, Penn State.

Four pesticides commonly used on crops to kill insects and fungi also kill honeybee larvae within their hives, according to Penn State and University of Florida researchers. The team also found that N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) -- an inert, or inactive, chemical commonly used as a pesticide additive -- is highly toxic to honeybee larvae.

"We found that four of the pesticides most commonly found in beehives kill bee larvae," said Jim Frazier, professor of entomology, Penn State. "We also found that the negative effects of these pesticides are sometimes greater when the pesticides occur in combinations within the hive.

"Since pesticide safety is judged almost entirely on adult honeybee sensitivity to individual pesticides and also does not consider mixtures of pesticides, the risk assessment process that the Environmental Protection Agency uses should be changed."

According to Frazier, the team's previous research demonstrated that forager bees bring back to the hive an average of six different pesticides on the pollen they collect. Nurse bees use this pollen to make beebread, which they then feed to honeybee larvae.

To examine the effects of four common pesticides -- fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos -- on bee larvae, the researchers reared honeybee larvae in their laboratory. They then applied the pesticides alone and in all combinations to the beebread to determine whether these insecticides and fungicides act alone or in concert to create a toxic environment for honeybee growth and development.

The researchers also investigated the effects of NMP on honeybee larvae by adding seven concentrations of the chemical to a pollen-derived, royal jelly diet. NMP is used to dissolve pesticides into formulations that then allow the active ingredients to spread and penetrate the plant or animal surfaces onto which they are applied. The team fed their treated diet, containing various types and concentrations of chemicals, to the laboratory-raised bee larvae.

The team's results are reported in the current issue of PLoS ONE.

"We found that mixtures of pesticides can have greater consequences for larval toxicity than one would expect from individual pesticides," Frazier said.

Among the four pesticides, honeybee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil. They also were negatively affected by a mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate. In addition, the larvae were sensitive to the combination of chlorothalonil with the miticide coumaphos. In contrast, the addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture.

According to Chris Mullin, professor of entomology, Penn State, these pesticides may directly poison honeybee larvae or they may indirectly kill them by disrupting the beneficial fungi that are essential for nurse bees to process pollen into beebread.

"Chronic exposure to pesticides during the early life stage of honeybees may contribute to their inadequate nutrition or direct poisoning with a resulting impact on the survival and development of the entire bee brood," he said.

The researchers note that fluvalinate and coumaphos are commonly used by beekeepers on crops to control Varroa mites, and are found to persist within beehives for about five years. Chlorothalonil is a broad-spectrum agricultural fungicide that is often applied to crops in bloom when honeybees are present for pollination because it is currently deemed safe to bees. Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate in crop management.

"Our findings suggest that the common pesticides chlorothalonil, fluvalinate, coumaphos and chloropyrifos, individually or in mixtures, have statistically significant impacts on honeybee larval survivorship," Mullin said.

"This is the first study to report serious toxic effects on developing honeybee larvae of dietary pesticides at concentrations that currently occur in hives." The team also found that increasing amounts of NMP corresponded to increased larval mortality, even at the lowest concentration tested.

"There is a growing body of research that has reported a wide range of adverse effects of inactive ingredients to human health, including enhancing pesticide toxicities across the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and hormone systems," Mullin said.

"The bulk of synthetic organic chemicals used and released into U.S. environments are formulation ingredients like NMP, which are generally recognized as safe. They have no mandated limits on their use and their residues remain unmonitored.

"Multi-billion pounds of these inactive ingredients overwhelm the total chemical burden from the active pesticide, drug and personal-care ingredients with which they are formulated. Among these co-formulants are surfactants and solvents of known high toxicity to fish, amphibians, honey bees and other non-target organisms.

"While we have found that NMP contributes to honeybee larvae mortality, the overall role of these inactive ingredients in pollinator decline remains to be determined."

Other authors on the paper include Wanyi Zhu, graduate research assistant in entomology, Penn State, and Daniel Schmehl, postdoctoral associate in entomology and nematology, University of Florida.

.


Related Links
Penn State
Farming Today - Suppliers and Technology






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





FARM NEWS
Chinese outdrink French in red wine: study
Bordeaux (AFP) Jan 29, 2014
China has become the world's biggest consumer of red wine, outdrinking the wine-loving French for the first time in 2013, according to a study published this week. China, including Hong Kong, drank more than 155 million cases of red wine in 2013, according to the study by Vinexpo, which runs wine and spirits trade shows, and the British International Wine and Spirit Research thinktank. T ... read more


FARM NEWS
Chinese scientists pinpoint source of Yangtze's main tributary

Savanna vegetation predictions best done by continent

China to promote geological information industry

Russian EVA re-attempting installation of Earth-observing cameras

FARM NEWS
India to launch three navigation satellites this year

NGC Wins Contract For GPS-Challenged Navigation and Geo-Registration Solution

20th Anniversary of Initial Operational Capability of the GPS Constellation

Northrop Grumman and Trex Enterprises to Introduce Celestial Navigation to Soldier Precision Targeting Laser Systems

FARM NEWS
Contraband trafficking ravages Central American forests

Effective control of invasive weeds can help attempts at reforestation in Panama

Rainforests in Far East shaped by humans for the last 11,000 years

How a South American tree adapts to volcanic soils

FARM NEWS
Put a plastic bag in your tank

Engineers teach old chemical new tricks to make cleaner fuels, fertilizers

Boeing And UAE To Look at Biofuels From Desert Plants

UT Austin Engineer Converts Yeast Cells into 'Sweet Crude' Biofuel

FARM NEWS
New theory may lead to more efficient solar cells

SolarCity and Taylor Morrison to Offer Solar Power to Hundreds of Homes in Phoenix

OneRoof Energy Launches API Library, Opening Doors for Innovation in Solar Software

South Africa Ranks as the World's Most Attractive Emerging Country for Solar Energy

FARM NEWS
Residents oppose new grid link needed for German energy transition

Active Power Control of Wind Turbines Can Improve Power Grid Reliability

France's Areva, Spain's Gamesa announce joint wind power venture

Musselroe Wind Farm provides fresh energy for local economy

FARM NEWS
Societal Benefits of Fossil Energy to be at Least 50 Times Greater than Perceived Costs of Carbon

Goldman Sachs pulls out from Pacific coal export project

Colombia stops Drummond coal shipments over environmental row

China coal mine accidents kill 1,049 in 2013: govt

FARM NEWS
Chinese Communist Party expels Nanjing mayor

No easy ride for homeward bound China bikers

Money and pride keep families apart at China New Year

Two activists guilty over anti-graft protests: court




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement