Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. Farming News .




FARM NEWS
Rice or wheat? How grains define cultural identity
by Staff Writers
Washington (AFP) May 08, 2014


Ever wondered why cultures can be so different, with Westerners more focused on the individual than people in the East?

Psychologists said Thursday that the divide may come down to which crops are historically farmed in different regions.

This "rice theory," described in the journal Science, holds that people who traditionally grow paddy rice become more collective and holistic over time because of the intense labor involved and the need for cooperation among neighbors.

In contrast, those who live in regions that grow wheat think more independently and analytically, in large part because the crop requires half the labor and not nearly the same need for cooperation as rice, researchers argued.

"We propose that the rice theory can partly explain East-West differences," said the study led by Thomas Talhelm, a University of Virginia doctoral student in cultural psychology.

"You do not need to farm rice yourself to inherit rice culture," he added.

Since a host of differences exist between cultures across the world and could be linked to religion, politics, climate or technology, researchers decided to narrow their focus to China, where the Yangtze River roughly divides the wheat-growing north from the rice-growing south.

Researchers tested 1,162 Han Chinese -- China's majority -- students from six different locations using measures of cultural thought, implicit individualism and loyalty or nepotism.

Some tasks involved picking two related objects from a basic diagram of a person's social circle; and dealing with friends versus strangers in a business transaction.

They found that people in rice-growing regions tended to choose more abstract pairings, while people from wheat cultures tended to pick more analytical pairs.

People from rice-growing regions tended to draw themselves smaller than wheat-region people when constructing diagrams of social networks, suggesting wheat people saw themselves as more important than others.

Those from rice provinces were also more likely to reward their friends and less likely to punish them, showing how the ties within the group prevailed in social and business interactions.

"It's easy to think of China as a single culture, but we found that China has very distinct northern and southern psychological cultures and that southern China's history of rice farming can explain why people in southern China are more interdependent than people in the wheat-growing north," said Talhelm.

He said he first noticed differences in outlook and attitude while studying in China for several years from 2007.

Co-authors on the study came from Beijing Normal University, South China Normal University, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

The study also found evidence that more successful patents for inventions came from areas where less rice was grown, signaling a potential link between wheat growing and innovation.

"This doesn't nail it, but is consistent with the broader idea and will no doubt drive much future inquiry," said an accompanying Perspective article in Science by Joseph Heinrich of the University of British Columbia.

.


Related Links
Farming Today - Suppliers and Technology






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





FARM NEWS
Food security increased by new scientific model in agricultural production
Washington DC (SPX) May 07, 2014
Farmers are used to optimizing crop production on their own lands. They do soil tests to choose the right amount of fertilizers to apply, and they sometimes plant row crops on some fields while keeping others in pasture. But is it possible to optimize production across a much bigger area-say, the whole East Coast of the United States? That's the question a team of USDA-ARS scientists in Be ... read more


FARM NEWS
Kazakhstan's First Earth Observation Satellite to Orbit

GOES-R Propulsion and System Modules Delivered

How Does Your Garden Glow? NASA's OCO-2 Seeks Answer

The first globally complete glacier inventory has been created

FARM NEWS
Latest Galileo satellite arrives at ESA's test centre

Glonass Failure Caused by Faulty Software

Homegrown high-precision positioning system put to use

Russia eyes building Glonass stations in 36 countries

FARM NEWS
Emerald ash borers were in US long before first detection

Super-charged tropical trees of Borneo vitally important for global carbon cycling

Arctic study sheds light on tree-ring divergence problem

Extinction stalks Myanmar's forests

FARM NEWS
SE Asia palm oil problems could hit consumers worldwide

Fueling aviation with hardwoods

ACCESS II Alternative Jet Fuel Flight Tests Begin May 7, 2014

Ozone levels drop 20 percent with switch from ethanol to gasoline

FARM NEWS
Tennessee utility to add more solar power to grid

Sun sets on Spaniards' solar power dreams

JinkoSolar to Supply 100 MW Solar PV Modules for Two Projects in Chile

EnerTech and Morgan to sell Solar CPV Technology to Kuwait and Middle East

FARM NEWS
Offshore wind supported with U.S. federal funding

GDF Suez, others, selected to build offshore wind farms

U.S. moves closer to first-ever offshore wind farm

970-MW wind farm off the Isle of Wight considered

FARM NEWS
China coal mine death toll rises to 20: report

Rescuers race to save 22 trapped coal miners in China: Xinhua

U.K. Coal may close two deep mines

Your money or your life: coal miner's dilemma mirrors China's

FARM NEWS
China detains journalist over 'state secrets' leak: police

US urges China to free activists

China lawyer held ahead of Tiananmen anniversary: associate

Jack Ma: English teacher turned Internet visionary




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.